Monday, December 9, 2013

The Architecture of the Capitol from "The Hunger Games": Echoes of Rome, Echoes of Totalitarianism


Like almost everyone else, I'm enamored by the fabulous new film in the Hunger Games franchise. If you haven't seen Catching Fire yet- I highly encourage you to see it. Jennifer Lawrence reminds you that the future of film is very promising.
But while I would love to sing the praises of Jennifer Lawrence- her wit, humor, and beauty- I'd like to turn to a more serious aspect of the film I noticed when I watched the film last week. As you know, I watch film with a critical eye towards the elements that build up a scene, besides the actors of course. Usually, it takes more than one viewing, but in the case of the Hunger Games, I noticed one particular aspect right away: the architecture. To this, I dedicate my post.
It's been well documented that the filmmakers pay special attention to detail in creating the dystopic world of Panem, and their efforts are clearly present in the scenes in the Capitol, the center of Panem's totalitarian government. Sprawling, larger than life, and magnificent, the Capitol on film is every bit as exotic and imposing as Suzanne Collins described it in her wonderful novels. But the architecture struck me in a different way because I was looking at it through a slightly different lens. For me, I saw it as a reincarnated and computer generated (and I don't think there is anything wrong with that) view of the totalitarian government's architectural tendencies of the 1930s.
The Hunger Games, the story about young kids being forced to fight to the death on television, is, of course, a very grim picture of the future, so it is no surprise that the terrible totalitarian reigns of the '30s should feature so prominently in the inspiration of the creative forces behind the Capitol's design. Leaders like Hitler and Stalin challenged the viability of the free world and held the potential to drastically shape humanity in much different and unquestionably worse ways. And a vital part of their ideas (which were, of course, separate ideologies) was a much different looking world dominated by their own particular styles of architecture.

As a quick side note, I'd like to mention Mussolini briefly. As one of the earliest fascist leaders in Europe, he began developing an architectural style for his reincarnation of the Roman Empire long before Hitler or Stalin were even major contenders. Evidence of his efforts and plans are still evident in some areas around Rome. In the recent Shakespeare adaptation, Titus Andronicus, which sets some of the drama in fascist Italy, this architecture is present. However, I'm specifically going to concentrate on the Nazis and the Soviets.
Computer Animation of the never-built Palace of the Soviets
The Capitol Building from the Hunger Games
In all honesty, I was first struck by the fact that it seems that some of the buildings in the Capitol are direct homages of Stalin's distinct Soviet style. Many of the buildings in the Districts (such as 12's government building) are reminscient of that heavy Soviet style of Communist Bureaucratic architecture which is panned as dull and awful by almost everyone. In particular, the main building of the Capitol, which President Snow always stands at when the tributes march in at the beginning, reminds me vaguely of the Palace of the Soviets. In case you don't know anything about it, I'll fill you in.

A plan for Moscow, centered around the Palace.
Notice the similarities to the Capitol.
A large avenue centered on a main, imposing, classically inspired building. 

In the 1930s, Stalin planned on building an enormous tower as a tribute to the "success" of the Soviet system. Inspired by the Neoclassic designs that featured so prominently earlier in Russia's history, the Palace would have been a towering edifice of Soviet strength. However, World War II happened and plans for the tower were scrapped. Only the plans exist for it, but even they are impressive.
President Snow's Mansion
Even President Snow's neoclassic mansion in Catching Fire reminds me of Russian architecture. Perhaps its the traces of the Neoclassic Influence. More likely, it was the bright colors lit on the sides that reminded me, ever so vaguely, of the Winter Palace of St. Petersburg. After all, even the vestiges of the czars are reminiscent of absolute government and oppression. (As a quick note, President Snow's mansion is actually the Swan House in Atlanta, Georgia).
A rough sketch of the potential plans for Stalin's Moscow
(Never Built)
Notice the similarities to the Capitol
A similar (colored) view with an emphasis on the Palace
Notice the similarities between the Capitol's main building (I assume) and the Palace of the Soviets. Its obvious that the filmmakers had a certain idea in mind when they started designing what the Capitol would look like. Indeed, if you examine plans of Stalin's planned expansion of Moscow, you'll notice striking similarities to the Capitol. Notice that main triumphal avenue. It's a common thread- take a vision people are familiar with already to convey the ideas that such a vision holds.
The Capitol 
After I got over the similarities between the Palace of the Soviets, I started fixating on that Triumphal Avenue of the Capitol. After all, it plays a large part in both films. It's a magnificent tribute to the size and wealth of the Capitol. Most of all it is incredible imposing. Which is, of course, the point of all Totalitarian architecture. If you see vestiges of Fascist, Nazi, or Soviet Architecture, you are struck by its heavy-handedness, its brute size, and its incredible dimensions, all which were meant to dwarf the viewer.
Speer and Hitler
(Below: Speer's New Reich Chancellery)
Notice the stripped and imposing classical influence



No totalitarian style embodied that more than Hitler's unique Nazi architecture. Dominated by the (maybe) brilliant German architect and Nazi collaborator Albert Speer, Hitler's architectural style emphasized size, straight lines, and uniformity. Pictures of Speer's New Reich Chancellery, which was actually built, unlike many of his plans, screams oppressive architecture. The size and dimensions of the place dwarf even the modern viewer. And I'm talking about viewers of photographs (it was destroyed in the bombing of Berlin).
The "Cathedral of Light"
A Terrifying Mass Experience of Nazism
Obviously you can see Speer's love of bold straight lines and
Hitler's belief in their power to impress
Hitler stressed the importance of what he called the "mass experience"- giant political rallies unifying the people around his perverted ideals. Speer designed a magnificent rallying grounds at Nuremberg where giant lights would create the impression of giant, straight columns in the night sky. Even the arenas for the Olympic Games were supposed to convey this idea. The idea of using mass public events to unify the people should sound familiar to anyone thinking of the Hunger Games (as you should be if you're reading this).
One of Speer's models for Germania: The New Berlin
A horrific vision of the future which Speer and Hitler
plotted and planned over. Built by slave labor to impress the
world, it was designed to last 1000 years- the length of the Reich.
But, back to that avenue. One of the scarier things that Hitler planned was his vision of the New World Order, of a Reich that would last one thousand years. He planned on redesigning cities, built using slave labor, to show the glory of himself and his system. When you think about it, the thought is actually quite disgusting, but I digress. In particular, Hitler and Speer redesigned Berlin and Munich. I'm going to concentrate on Berlin (or Germania, as Hitler planned on renaming it after the war) because it feature more prominently into my discussion.


Hitler planned on completely rebuilding Berlin after the War was over. Renamed Germania, it would focus as the center of the Third Reich and stand as a concrete monument to the glory of Nazism. Obviously it was never built. Only the plans survive, and, even to the hater of Nazism (i.e. rational person), they are both disgusting and somewhat... astounding. Berlin would be dominated by a giant triumphal avenue down the center. On one side, a large triumphal arch would sing his praises. On the other side, the enormous Meeting Hall of the People (Volkshalle) would stand. Composed of an incredibly large dome, it is estimated that if it were ever built, it would have its own weather inside. The triumphal avenue would be used for victory parades and more "mass experiences" to impress the people. Experiences like say... brutal bloodbaths for public entertainment. Fortunately, we'll never know.
Speer and Hitler topping out a building with a Nazi Eagle
Literally architects of evil
If you combine the visions of both Hitler and Stalin, you have a dead ringer for what the Capitol looks like in the films. Dominated by its main avenue and imposing buildings on either ends, it exists to impress those under its oppressive control with its incredible size. And certainly, it succeeds.
Roman Parade along Triumphal Avenue
Ben Hur
Seems like the march of the tributes in The Hunger Games
I would be remiss, of course, if I failed to mention a final and extremely important influence to both the Hunger Games and Totalitarian leaders. Of course, I'm thinking of the Roman Empire. The Romans were the original propagators of an enormous empire united under a single world view and dominated, visibly, by incredibly large buildings. Most totalitarian architecture, and indeed, buildings, take heed from the Roman influence. Hitler's distinct Nazi style was a stripped version of Classical Roman architecture. Even Stalin was inspired by the Neoclassical designs of the czars, which of course, were inspired by the Classical Romans.
Pollice Verso
Jean-Leon Gerome
The influence of Rome on the Hunger Games is obvious. The series tells of a collapse of an Empire, and no empire collapsed more loudly than Rome. The absolute leader, Snow, is simply a reincarnation of the famous Roman imperial tyrants. Even the name of the country, Panem, come from the old Latin phrase for "bread and circuses," a policy adapted by the Emperors to appease the masses. And while bloody games exist only in the realms of fiction today, the gladiator games were, of course, the precursor to the Hunger Games.



Look at the names of the characters in the Capitol. Many of them are classical Roman names. Plutarch Heavensbee. Caesar Flickerman, Seneca Crane, Coriolanus (a Roman General) Snow, just to name a few. Even the seal of the Capitol, the outstretched Eagle, is a new version of the old Roman Eagle standard. Which inspired the Eagle-topped swastika of the Nazis. Which inspired the Capitol.

The point that I'm trying to make, for over the last year, is that the influence of art cannot be under-emphasized. I concentrate on film, which is a fairly innocent subject on its own. But the history of art is one intrinsically connected to the history of the world- good and bad. Anyone vaguely familiar with the history of Western Civilization will be aware of the influence the Romans and other Classical Cultures have had on art and thought throughout the centuries. I've pointed to an influence- politically and architecturally- that is less than one hundred years old, during one of the darker times in humanity's history. And yet the influence continues to this day and age, when influenced art influences the art of film.


The Hunger Games may seem like an innocent series, and perhaps in some respects, it is. But to those looking for a lesson, the Hunger provides it. Totalitarianism and oppression has a unique architectural style, which I hope I've been able to prove to you.  Because the world of the Hunger Games looks a certain way, the viewer knows intrinsically that it is a certain way. And that is a testament to both the brilliance of the filmmakers and the power of art.

Sources
•"Art Under Fascism: Architecture." Web. 05 Apr. 2011. <http://sitemaker.umich.edu/artunderfascism/architecture>.
•"The Fascinating World of Fascist Architecture." Rome Guest House – “Casa Romana. Web. 05 Apr. 2011. <http://www.myromeapartment.com/rome-city-guide/fascist-architecture/>.
•"Stalinist Architecture." New York Architecture. Web. 5 Apr. 2011. <http://www.nyc-architecture.com/SCC/SCC030a.htm>.
•"Totalitarian Architecture of the Third Reich." Dark Roasted Blend. 17 Feb. 2009. Web. 05 Apr. 2011. <http://www.darkroastedblend.com/2009/02/totalitarian-architecture-of-third.html>.
•Zinovieva, Olga. "A Journey into Stalinist Moscow of the 1930s – 1950s." Passport: Moscow. Web. 5 Apr. 2011. <http://www.passportmagazine.ru/article/1506/>.

Watch Catching Fire at a theater near you!

7 comments:

  1. You surely have proved it to me! I can clearly see how alike it all is! The film really conveys styles from the past into the future! We have some idea how it could of been too if Hitler got his way. Wow. History has a lot to teach us and with the Hunger Games it does as a reflection from the ideas of totalitarianism in a futuristic world of it. Amazing post!

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    1. Thank you so much for your input and appreciation!! It's great to know that someone is enjoying my work. Feel free to post comments, corrections, or suggestions anywhere on the blog. I hope you keep reading and keep enjoying!

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    2. You are welcome! It was really insightful. I will visit back when I can.

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  2. Thank you for this excellent essay. Very well done! I'm currently teaching The Hunger Games and I've recommended it to my students.

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    1. Thank you so much! I hope you enjoyed reading it as much as I enjoyed writing it. I encourage you to follow the blog and keep reading and adding insight! Merry Christmas!

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  3. Such an excellent essay! It gives me lots of new knowledge. Thank youuuuu...

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